Political System in Lebanon
Lebanon has a liberal democracy system. It won its independence in 1943.
Its constitution was adapted in 1926 and has been amended many times since - the last was
in 1990. Lebanon officially recognizes eighteen religious communities within the
country. Its political system reflects these communities and the historical and
cultural needs of its people.
The political system is distributed among the authorities recognized in the
parliamentary democratic system, that is: the Executive, Legislative and Judicial
The Head of State is the president of the republic elected by the members of
Parliament for a six-year mandate. To alter the terms of this mandate would
require an amendment to the constitution . A symbol of unity for the nation, his duties
are to maintain the respect of the constitution, and to safeguard the independence and
integrity of the country. The President is also the "Chef Supreme" of the Armed
Forces, who come under the authority of the council of Ministers
The Executive Power is held by the Council of Ministers (the Government) headed by
the Prime Minister. A collegial authority, the Council is empowered to deal with general
political matters, to elaborate new laws, projects and to issue decrees and their
application, to nominate civil servants, and to dissolve parliament for specific reasons
at the President's request. Decisions taken by the government are by consensus or a
majority vote of those attending. Nevertheless, a 66% majority of the total number of
ministers is required for fundamental issues such as amending the Constitution, voting on
the budget and development plans.
The Legislative Power is held by a parliament comprised of 128 members, who are
elected through a democratic system directly by the people for a renewable four-year term.
The parliament carries all the power and authority normally attributed to a parliamentary
One of the public institutions newly created after the 1990 Amendment of the
Constitution is the Constitutional Council. Comprised of ten members, it is responsible
for the control of the constitutionality of laws and has the power to settle litigation
over presidential and parliamentary elections.
The Judicial Power is based on the French system. It comprises:
1. Judicial tribunals empowered to settle litigation in civil and penal
2.A Counsel d'Etat for administrative questions.
In this way, public institutions are in agreement with the demands of a
modern democracy and the way in which the liberal system has been instituted and
practiced. It has helped to develop the economic and financial role that Lebanon has
played between the Orient and the West, giving the people and the societies the facility
to work in suitable legal freedom.